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Linguistics

June 11th, 2020 by

Linguistics

General American English Consonant Allophones

May 5th, 2020 by
PhonemeAllophoneBeginning of WordMiddle of WordEnd of Word
/p/[p]"plan"
[ˈplæn] /ˈplæn/
"spin"
[ˈspIn] /ˈspIn/
"soup"
[ˈsup] /ˈsup/
/p/[pʰ]"pin"
[ˈpʰIn] /ˈpIn/
"import"
[Imˈpʰɔrt] /Imˈpɔrt/
-
/b/[b]"be"
[ˈbi] /ˈbi/
"robot"
[ˈɹoʊbɑt] /ɹoʊbɑt/
"job"
[ˈdʒɑb] /ˈdʒɑb/
/t/[t]"two"
[ˈtʰu] /ˈtu/
"attack"
[əˈtʰæk] /əˈtæk/
-
/t/ or /d/[ɾ]-

"water" "ladder"
[ˈwɔɾɚ] [læɾɚ] /ˈwɔtɚ/ /lædɚ/
-
/t/[ʔ]-"mountain"
[‘maʊnʔn̩] /ˈmaʊntn̩/
-
/d/[d]"day"
[ˈdeɪ]'
/ˈdeɪ/
"words"
[ˈwɝdz] /ˈwɝdz/
"need"
[ˈnid] /ˈnid/
/k/[k]"quite"
[ˈkwaɪt] /ˈkwaɪt/
"next"
[ˈnɛkst] /ˈnɛkst/
"like"
[ˈlaɪk] /ˈlaɪk/
/k/[kʰ]"come"
[ˈkʰʌm] /ˈkʌm/
account

[əˈkʰaʊnt]
/əˈkaʊnt/
-
/g/[g]"go"
[ˈɡoʊ] /ˈɡoʊ/
"together"
[təˈɡɛðɚ] /təˈɡɛðɚ/
"big"
[ˈbɪɡ] /ˈbɪɡ/
/m/[m]"met"
[mɛt] /mɛt/
"women"
[ˈwɪmən] /ˈwɪmən/
"beam"
[bim] /bim/
/m̩/[m̩]-"smile"
[ˈsm̩aɪəɫ] /ˈsmaɪəɫ/
-
/n/[n]"no"
[ˈnoʊ] /ˈnoʊ/
"another"
[əˈnʌðɚ] /əˈnʌðɚ/
"then"
[ˈðɛn] /ˈðɛn/
/n̩/[n̩]-"student"
[ˈstudn̩t] /ˈstudn̩t/
"person"
[ˈpʰɝsn̩] /ˈpɝsn̩/
/ŋ/[ŋ]-"think"
[ˈθɪŋk] /ˈθɪŋk/
"thing"
[ˈθɪŋ] /ˈθɪŋ/
/f/[f]"few"
[ˈfju] /ˈfju/
"often"
[ˈɔfən] /ˈɔfən/
"life"
[ˈlaɪf] /ˈlaɪf/
/v/[v]"voice"
[ˈvɔɪs] /ˈvɔɪs/
"ever"
[ˈɛvɚ] /ˈɛvɚ/
"give"
[ˈɡɪv] /ˈɡɪv/
/θ/[θ]"three"
[ˈθɹi] /ˈθɹi/
"nothing"
[ˈnʌθɪŋ] /ˈnʌθɪŋ/
"death"
[ˈdɛθ] /ˈdɛθ/
/ð/[ð]"there"
[ˈðɛr] /ˈðɛr/
"other"
[ˈʌðɚ] /ˈʌðɚ/
"smooth"
[ˈsmuð] /ˈsmuð/
/s/[s]"say"
[ˈseɪ] /ˈseɪ/
"also"
[ˈɔɫˌsoʊ] /ˈɔlˌsoʊ/
"yes"
[ˈjɛs] /ˈjɛs/
/z/[z]"zone"
[ˈzoʊn] /ˈzoʊn/
"music"
[ˈmjuzɪk] /ˈmjuzɪk/
"buzz"
[ˈbʌz] /ˈbʌz/
/ʃ/[ʃ]"she"
[ˈʃi] /ˈʃi/
"social"
[ˈsoʊʃəɫ] /ˈsoʊʃəl/
"fish"
[ˈfɪʃ] /ˈfɪʃ/
/ʒ/[ʒ]"genre"
[ˈʒɑnɹə] /ˈʒɑnɹə/
"decision"
[dɪˈsɪʒən] /dɪˈsɪʒən/
"garage"
[ɡɚˈɹɑʒ] /ɡɚˈɹɑʒ/
/h/[h]"head"
[ˈhɛd] /ˈhɛd/
"perhaps"
[pɚˈhæps] /pɚˈhæps/
-
/tʃ/[tʃ]"check"
[ˈtʃɛk] /ˈˈtʃɛk/
"teacher"
[ˈtʰitʃɚ] /ˈtitʃɚ/
"age"
[ˈeɪdʒ] /ˈeɪdʒ/
/j/[j]"yet"
[ˈjɛt] /ˈjɛt/
"million"
[ˈmɪɫjən] /ˈmɪljən/
-
/w/[w]"when"
[ˈwɛn] /ˈwɛn/
"away"
[əˈweɪ] /əˈweɪ/
-
/ɹ/[ɹ]"right"
[ˈɹaɪt] /ˈɹaɪt/
"through"
[ˈθɹu] /ˈθɹu/
-
/l/[l]"last"
[ˈlæst] /ˈlæst/
"believe"
[bəˈliv] /bəˈliv/
-
/l/[ɫ]-"old"
"[ˈoʊɫd] /ˈoʊld/
"well"
[ˈwɛɫ] /ˈwɛl/
/l̩/[ɫ̩]-"models"
[ˈmɑɾɫ̩z] /ˈmɑdl̩z/
"little"
[ˈlɪɾɫ̩] /ˈlɪtl̩/

How climate change is making hurricanes more dangerous » Yale Climate Connections

July 14th, 2019 by

 

Stronger wind speeds, more rain, and worsened storm surge add up to more potential destruction.

Climate change deniers often trot out the fact that hurricanes are not becoming more frequent as “evidence” that global warming ant the resulting climate change is not happening. That misses the fact that hurricanes are rapidly becoming more intense, lasting longer, and dropping more water.  

For instance, Hurricane Harvey, which inundated Houston, dropped more water than any other storm in us history.  The US Midwest has undergone unprecedented flooding this year (2019)  and Pacific typhoons have unleashed the most power ever recorded. 

This is not surprising and is exactly what was predicted.  As the world becomes warmer, there is more water in the atmosphere.  This water eventually comes back to Earth as rain or snow.

The idea that the climate crisis is going to happen in the future is flat wrong, it’s happing now and will rapidly get worse.

 

Source: How climate change is making hurricanes more dangerous » Yale Climate Connections

Mind

April 24th, 2019 by

DoD Final Climate Report

February 11th, 2019 by

This is a recent paper from the US Department of Defense about some of the issues they are facing because of global warming. It includes the destruction of bases, humanitarian aid for dislocated populations, and dealing with the resulting wars.

Source document contributed to DocumentCloud by Nicholas Kusnetz (InsideClimate News).

Source: DoD Final Climate Report

Brain and Music

February 10th, 2019 by

Music and Your Brain

Article on the Police

February 10th, 2019 by

English Idioms

November 23rd, 2018 by
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IPA Consonants with Audio

November 18th, 2018 by

Speech Accent Archive

November 18th, 2018 by