Category:

Negotiating

January 16th, 2019 by

Negotiation Worksheet

December 13th, 2018 by

Worksheets – Negotiations (2): Positions and interests
2.           Key terms

Match the words and phrases on the left with the explanations on the right.

3.           Reading
Read the article. Write one of the words/phrases from exercise 2 in each space. Some words need to be in the plural form.

Positions and interests
They say that negotiating is like mind-reading but the most important mind to read is your own. If you don’t fully understand your own needs and wants from the negotiation, there’s no point in trying to read the other person’s mind!

The mistake most inexperienced negotiators make is that they focus too much on positions and not enough on interests. Almost by definition, (1)                                      are incompatible: I want to pay $500 for your printer, but you want to receive $1000; I want the printer tomorrow, but you want to deliver next month; I want you to install the printer, but you want me to do it. We can’t both get what we want.

Even if we (2)                on price and delivery date, neither of us will be happy.

That’s why it’s so important to be aware of our interests, the reasons behind our positions. Let’s look again at the three (3)                                        in our example. I want the machine quickly so I can complete a big order for a client worth $10,000. You can’t deliver quickly because you don’t have that particular model in stock. I can’t pay $1000 because I’ve got a cash flow crisis – that’s why the big order from my client is so important. You won’t accept $500 because the printer will cost you

$600 from your supplier. I want you to install the machine because I don’t think I could do it properly. You want me to do it because it costs you $50 to send out an engineer.

When we start thinking in terms of (4)                , creative solutions become possible. Maybe there’s a way for me to borrow a different machine to complete the big order, and to pay the full price, plus the $50 cost of installation, in two months, when the right machine’s in stock and my cash flow crisis is over.

In other words, instead of treating the negotiation like a game of poker, we can both benefit from being honest and open about what we really need and why we need it.Of course openness and honesty carry their own risks: a completely open and honest negotiator can easily be manipulated by a more cynical adversary.

Revealing your interests can be a great way of breaking a (5)                , but there’s no need to reveal too much if there’s no deadlock to break. At the end of the day, you’ve got a duty to get the best possible deal for yourself or your organisation.

That’s why, for each variable, it’s essential to plan three points. Start by working out your (6)                             . If you’re the seller, this might be the price you need simply to cover your costs. Below this price, you’re better off walking away from the negotiation. You can then decide what you actually want from each variable – the figure that would make you feel satisfied. This is your (7)                             . Finally, plan your (8)                                          some way beyond that target point. This means you can show

some flexibility in the negotiation and still come away with what you want – and you may even get more than you want!

Once you’ve worked out these three points for every variable (and of course, how they relate to each other), there’s still one vital piece of information you need: your BATNA, or best alternative to negotiated agreement. For example, if you’re trying to sell your car to person A, it’s useful to know how much person B would be prepared to pay. If A can’t match B’s price, walk away from the negotiation.

Even if there’s no person B, you can work out the probability of finding another buyer, and making a realistic calculation of how much you could expect that buyer to pay. Of course, real person A’s concrete offer of $1000 may be worth more to you than hypothetical person B’s potential offer of $1200, but these are things you can calculate or at least estimate. And even if there’s no hope of finding a person B, you’ve still got a (9) : you get to keep your car.

Finally, professional negotiators always plan a few (10)                : things that cost them nothing, but which they can exchange for something of value from the other side. For example, one variable might be delivery time. The supplier has actually got the goods in stock, and is desperate to get them out of the warehouse. But he still asks for a four-week delivery period. The customer needs the goods as soon as possible, and accepts a higher price in exchange for quicker delivery. Of course, this can be a risky strategy – deceiving the other person is in direct conflict with your aim of building long-term trust! But if used in moderation, this technique can be good for breaking deadlocks.

4.           Stating your position
Read this extract from a negotiation between trade union officials and the new owners of a factory. Answer the questions.

1.           What exactly are the four variables?

2.           Do you think the trade union’s demands are reasonable?

3.           What can you guess about their underlying interests?

4.           What is their BATNA?

5.           What do you think their giveaways might be?

Trade Union representative:As we see it, there are four main issues that we need to resolve: layoffs, outsourcing, unfair dismissals and wages.

First of all, on the issue of layoffs in the production department, we’re aware that you’re trying to cut costs and our members are very worried about the prospect of layoffs. What we need is a guarantee of no compulsory layoffs for the next five years. We’re prepared to accept a voluntary layoff program, but obviously the terms would have to be very attractive to persuade people to take it.

Secondly, we understand you are planning to outsource some functions from our factory, namely security, transport and catering. Our members from these three departments are extremely nervous about this prospect, and again, we’d have to expect a promise of no outsourcing.

Thirdly, four of our colleagues have been dismissed recently, for reasons that we believe are totally unfair. We would have to insist that all four of them are allowed to return to work, and that they receive a full apology from management.

Finally, as you know, we have had a pay freeze for the past two years, which means that pay levels in this factory have fallen in real terms relative to similar factories in the area. We are aware that the company made a record profit last year, and we expect some of that to be returned to the workers. We believe a 5% pay rise for all workers would go some way towards restoring the balance, with the promise of further pay discussions next year.

If you are prepared to meet these conditions, we will be happy to call off next week’s strike.

5.           Useful language
Complete this list of useful language using phrases from the extract.

Introducing your list of variables:
·        As we (1)                it, there are four main issues that we need to (2)                .

·        We have identified three points for discussion, and these mostly correspond with your own list.
Introducing a variable:
·        On the (3)                of …

·        With regard to the subject of …

·        On your fourth point, …
Stating the background for a variable:
·        We’re (4)                that …

·        We (5)                …

·        As you (6)                , …

·        We firmly believe that …
Insisting (= making stronger demands):
·        What we (7)                is a strong (8)                 of …

·        We (9)                have to (10)                 that …

·        I’m afraid this is not negotiable.

·        I’m afraid this isn’t something we can discuss.

·        This cannot be part of our negotiations today.
Urging (= making normal demands):
·        … would have to be …

·        We’d have to (11)                a (12)                 of …

·        We (13)                some of that to be …

·        Our expectation is something in the region of …

·        We would like to propose …

·        … will have to depend on …
Justifying (= providing reasons):
·        Our members are very worried about …

·        … would go some way (14)                restoring the (15)                .

·        So we need to …. Otherwise, …

·        We have conducted research which shows that …

·        We have a global policy of …

·        Our priority has got to be …
Showing flexibility:
·        We’re prepared to (16)                …

·        If you are (17)                to … we will be (18)                  to …

·        Of course, we will do all we can to help.

·        That said, we do appreciate that …

·        We accept we will need to pay more …

·        We can discuss this separately.

·        We would very much like to work with you to …

6.           Practice
The next extract is from the management’s statement of position. Complete the extract with words from the table in exercise 5.

Management representative:We have (1)                    three points for discussion, and these mostly (2)                                              with your own list.

Firstly, layoffs. As you (3)                    , our main reason for buying this factory is that we believe we can use it to produce goods more efficiently than the previous owners. Another way of looking at it is that they sold it because they were no longer able to produce goods here efficiently. So we need to find cost savings. (4)             , the factory will have to close and none of us wants that. We have (5)                      research which

(6)                    that we need to reduce our headcount in production by 25% over the next four years. We believe a significant part of that can be covered by natural processes, like retirements, and we would like as many of the layoffs as possible to be voluntary. But there will inevitably be some compulsory layoffs. So our (7)           is something in the

(8)                    of 10% layoffs this year, roughly half of which will be compulsory.

Secondly, as you say, we are looking to outsource a number of non-core functions. We have a global (9)                                           of not getting involved in catering, security and transport – we (10)                                       believe that all three functions can be performed more effectively and efficiently by external suppliers. So I’m (11)         this is not (12)                                                              : we will outsource those three functions, and will hopefully complete the process over the next three months. Of course, we will (13)                                                                      all we

(14)                    to help our employees from those three functions to get a

job with the new suppliers of those functions.

Thirdly, with (15)                     to the subject of pay rises, I’m afraid again we

have to look to the long-term viability of the factory. The company did

indeed make record profits last year, but that was almost entirely due to our financial trading arm, which is a separate business. This factory has to pay for itself, and that means making efficiency improvements. That

(16)                    , we do (17)                    that the two-year pay freeze has been difficult, so we would like to (18)                                               a 1% pay rise for those that remain after the layoffs. One of our longer-term aims is to make more use of automation technology in the factory, so although this will mean fewer people, it will also mean we need more specialised skills, for which we (19)                                               we will need to pay more. So any pay rises will have to (20)                                              on how much progress we make with our layoffs and automation program. So, those are our three positions.

7.          Problem-solving
Work in two teams. Team A is the trade union representatives. Team B is the management representatives. In your teams, plan a more reasonable presentation of your interests, taking the other side’s proposals into consideration.

8.           Role-play
Work in pairs, with one manager and one trade union representative in each pair. Take turns to present your new positions, using phrases from exercise 5.

Positions and Interests

November 4th, 2018 by

Worksheets – Negotiations: Positions and interests

  1. Key terms

    Match the words and phrases on the left with the explanations on the right.

    1. Position

    a. This is the figure for a particular variable that you would find satisfactory.

    2. Interest

    b. This is something that doesn’t really matter to you, but which you include in your opening position statement because you may be able to trade it for something from the other party.

    3. Variable

    c. This is your best alternative to a negotiated agreement. In other words, it is what you will still have if the negotiation fails.

    4. Opening point

    d.  A situation where there is no solution, because neither side can move.

    5. Target point

    e. This is your limit for a particular variable. You cannot go beyond this.

    6. Reservation point

    f.  This is the figure you give for a particular variable when you first state your position.

    7. BATNA

    g.  This is what you really need out of the negotiation.

    8. Deadlock

    h.  To agree to a compromise half-way between person A’s figure and person B’s figure.

    9. Split the difference

    i. This is what you say you want out of the negotiation.

    10. Giveaway

    j. This is one of the things that can be negotiated, such as the unit price, guarantees or the delivery date

  2. Reading

    Read the article. Write one of the words/phrases from exercise 1 in each space. Some words need to be in the plural form.

    Positions and interests

    They say that negotiating is like mind-reading but the most important mind to read is your own. If you don’t fully understand your own needs and wants from the negotiation, there’s no point in trying to read the other person’s mind!

    The mistake most inexperienced negotiators make is that they focus too much on positions and not enough on interests. Almost by definition, (1) ___________ are incompatible: I want to pay $500 for your printer, but you want to receive $1000; I want the printer tomorrow, but you want to deliver next month; I want you to install the printer, but you want me to do it. We can’t both get what we want.

    Even if we (2) ____________ on price and delivery date, neither of us will be happy.

    That’s why it’s so important to be aware of our interests, the reasons behind our positions. Let’s look again at the three (3) ____________ in our example. I want the machine quickly so I can complete a big order for a client worth $10,000. You can’t deliver quickly because you don’t have that particular model in stock. I can’t pay $1000 because I’ve got a cash flow crisis – that’s why the big order from my client is so important. You won’t accept $500 because the printer will cost you

    $600 from your supplier. I want you to install the machine because I don’t think I could do it properly. You want me to do it because it costs you $50 to send out an engineer.

    When we start thinking in terms of (4)  ____________, creative solutions become possible. Maybe there’s a way for me to borrow a different machine to complete the big order and to pay the full price, plus the $50 cost of installation, in two months, when the right machine’s in stock and my cash flow crisis is over.

    In other words, instead of treating the negotiation like a game of poker, we can both benefit from being honest and open about what we really need and why we need it. Of course, openness and honesty carry their own risks: a completely open and honest negotiator can easily be manipulated by a more cynical adversary.

    Revealing your interests can be a great way of breaking a (5) ____________ but there’s no need to reveal too much if there’s no deadlock to break. At the end of the day, you’ve got a duty to get the best possible deal for yourself or your organization.

    That’s why, for each variable, it’s essential to plan three points. Start by working out your (6) ___________. If you’re the seller, this might be the price you need simply to cover your costs. Below this price, you’re better off walking away from the negotiation. You can then decide what you actually want from each variable – the figure that would make you feel satisfied. This is your (7)__________. Finally, plan your (8) ____________ some way beyond that target point. This means you can show some flexibility in the negotiation and still come away with what you want – and you may even get more than you want!

    Once you’ve worked out these three points for every variable (and of course, how they relate to each other), there’s still one vital piece of information you need: your BATNA, or best alternative to negotiated agreement. For example, if you’re trying to sell your car to person A, it’s useful to know how much people B would be prepared to pay. If A can’t match B’s price, walk away from the negotiation.

    Even if there’s no person B, you can work out the probability of finding another buyer, and making a realistic calculation of how much you could expect that buyer to pay. Of course, real person A’s concrete offer of $1000 may be worth more to you than hypothetical person B’s potential offer of $1200, but these are things you can calculate or at least estimate. And even if there’s no hope of finding a person B, you’ve still got a (9)  _________ you get to keep your car.

    Finally, professional negotiators always plan a few (10)   ____________things that cost them nothing, but which they can exchange for something of value from the other side. For example, one variable might be delivery time. The supplier has actually got the goods in stock and is desperate to get them out of the warehouse. But he still asks for a four-week delivery period. The customer needs the goods as soon as possible and accepts a higher price in exchange for quicker delivery. Of course, this can be a risky strategy – deceiving the other person is in direct conflict with your aim of building long-term trust! But if used in moderation, this technique can be good for breaking deadlocks.

  3. Stating your position

Read this extract from a negotiation between trade union officials and the new owners of a factory. Answer the questions.

Background: The new owners have hinted that they will try to reduce costs in the factory by around 10%, and the workers see this as a threat to their jobs.  Their trade union is threatening to call a strike.
  1. What exactly are the four variables?
  2. Do you think the trade union’s demands are reasonable?
  3. What can you guess about their underlying interests?
  4. What is their BATNA?
  5. What do you think their giveaways might be?

First of all, on the issue of layoffs in the production department, we’re aware that you’re trying to cut costs and our members are very worried about the prospect of layoffs. What we need is a guarantee of no compulsory layoffs for the next five years. We’re prepared to accept a voluntary layoff program, but obviously, the terms would have to be very attractive to persuade people to take it.

Secondly, we understand you are planning to outsource some functions from our factory, namely security, transport, and catering. Our members from these three departments are extremely nervous about this prospect, and again, we’d have to expect a promise of no outsourcing.

Thirdly, four of our colleagues have been dismissed recently, for reasons that we believe are totally unfair. We would have to insist that all four of them are allowed to return to work and that they receive a full apology from management.

Finally, as you know, we have had a pay freeze for the past two years, which means that pay levels in this factory have fallen in real terms relative to similar factories in the area. We are aware that the company made a record profit last year, and we expect some of that to be returned to the workers. We believe a 5% pay rise for all workers would go some way towards restoring the balance, with the promise of further pay discussions next year.

If you are prepared to meet these conditions, we will be happy to call off next week’s strike.

  1. Useful language

    Complete this list of useful language using phrases from the extract.

    Introducing your list of variables:

    Introducing a variable:

    Stating the background for a variable:

    Insisting (= making stronger demands):

    Urging (= making normal demands):

    Justifying (= providing reasons):

    Showing flexibility:

    • As we (1) it, there are four main issues that we need to (2) .

    • We have identified three points for discussion, and these mostly correspond with your own list.

    • On the (3) of …

    • With regard to the subject of …

    • On your fourth point, …

    • We’re (4) that …

    • We (5) …

    • As you (6) , …

    • We firmly believe that …

    • What we (7) is a strong (8) of …

    • We (9) have to (10) that …

    • I’m afraid this is not negotiable.

    • I’m afraid this isn’t something we can discuss.

    • This cannot be part of our negotiations today.

    • … would have to be …

    • We’d have to (11) a (12) of …

    • We (13) some of that to be …

    • Our expectation is something in the region of …

    • We would like to propose …

    • … will have to depend on …

    • Our members are very worried about …

    • … would go some way (14) restoring the (15) .

    • So we need to …. Otherwise, …

    • We have conducted research which shows that …

    • We have a global policy of …

    • Our priority has got to be …

    • We’re prepared to (16) …

    • If you are (17) to … we will be (18) to …

    • Of course, we will do all we can to help.

    • That said, we do appreciate that …

    • We accept we will need to pay more …

    • We can discuss this separately.

    • We would very much like to work with you to …

  2. Practice

    The next extract is from the management’s statement of position. Complete the extract with words from the table in exercise 5.

    Management representative:We have (1) three points for discussion, and these mostly (2) with your own list.

    Firstly, layoffs. As you (3) , our main reason for buying this factory is that we believe we can use it to produce goods more efficiently than the previous owners. Another way of looking at it is that they sold it because they were no longer able to produce goods here efficiently. So we need to find cost savings. (4) , the factory will have to close and none of us wants that. We have (5) research which

    (6) that we need to reduce our headcount in production by 25% over the next four years. We believe a significant part of that can be covered by natural processes, like retirements, and we would like as many of the layoffs as possible to be voluntary. But there will inevitably be some compulsory layoffs. So our (7) is something in the

    (8) of 10% layoffs this year, roughly half of which will be compulsory.

    Secondly, as you say, we are looking to outsource a number of non-core functions. We have a global (9) of not getting involved in catering, security and transport – we (10) believe that all three functions can be performed more effectively and efficiently by external suppliers. So I’m (11) this is not (12) : we will outsource those three functions, and will hopefully complete the process over the next three months. Of course, we will (13) all we

    (14) to help our employees from those three functions to get a

    job with the new suppliers of those functions.

    Thirdly, with (15) to the subject of pay rises, I’m afraid again we

    have to look to the long-term viability of the factory. The company did indeed make record profits last year, but that was almost entirely due to our financial trading arm, which is a separate business. This factory has to pay for itself, and that means making efficiency improvements. That

    (16) , we do (17) that the two-year pay freeze has been difficult, so we would like to (18) a 1% pay rise for those that remain after the layoffs. One of our longer-term aims is to make more use of automation technology in the factory, so although this will mean fewer people, it will also mean we need more specialised skills, for which we (19) we will need to pay more. So any pay rises will have to (20) on how much progress we make with our layoffs and automation program. So, those are our three positions.

    On your fourth (21) , the return to work of dismissed colleagues, I’m afraid this (22) something we can discuss. Of course, we have an appeals procedure, which those employees can use if they feel their dismissal was unfair, and of course we can discuss this

    (23) , but this (24) be part of our negotiations today.

    We would very much like to (25) with you to avoid a strike, which would be terrible for all of us. But at the same time, our

    (26) has got to be to ensure the long-term viability of the factory. Otherwise, none of us will have jobs two years from now.

  3. Problem-solving

    Work in two teams. Team A is the trade union representatives. Team B is the management representatives. In your teams, plan a more reasonable presentation of your interests, taking the other side’s proposals into consideration.

  4. Role-play

Work in pairs, with one manager and one trade union representative in each pair. Take turns to present your new positions, using phrases from exercise 5.

 

Negotiation Process

November 3rd, 2018 by

It’s time to negotiate! Here are a few golden rules to successful negotiations:

1) Always try to negotiate for at least 15 minutes. Any less than that and it is unlikely that either party has had enough time to fairly consider the other side. Generally, the size or seriousness of the negotiation determines the amount of time needed to negotiate it. Setting a time limit is a good idea. Approximately 90% of negotiations get settled in the last 10% of the discussion.

2) Always offer to let the other party speak first. This is especially important if you are the one making a request for something such as a raise. The other party may have overestimated what you are going to ask for and may actually offer more than what you were going to request.

3) Always respect and listen to what your opponent has to say. This is important even if he or she does not extend the same courtesy to you. Do your best to remain calm and pleasant even if the other party is displaying frustration or anger. Remember some people will do anything to intimidate you.

4) Acknowledge what the other party says. Everyone likes to know that what they say is important. If the other party opens first, use it to your advantage, by paraphrasing what you have heard. Repeat their important ideas before you introduce your own stronger ones.

5) Pay attention to your own and your counterpartner’s body language. Review the chart below to learn how to interpret body language during the negotiations. Make sure that you aren’t conveying any negative body language.

Language to use to show understanding/agreement on a point:

  • I agree with you on that point.
  • That’s a fair suggestion.
  • So what you’re saying is that you…
  • In other words, you feel that…
  • You have a strong point there.
  • I think we can both agree that…
  • I don’t see any problem with/harm in that.
  • Language to use for objection on a point or offer:
  • I understand where you’re coming from; however,…
  • I’m prepared to compromise, but…
  • The way I look at it…
  • The way I see things…
  • If you look at it from my point of view…
  • I’m afraid I had something different in mind.
  • That’s not exactly how I look at it.
  • From my perspective…
  • I’d have to disagree with you there.
  • I’m afraid that doesn’t work for me.
  • Is that your best offer?

Body language possible meaning

Avoiding eye contact Lying
Not interested
Not telling the whole truth
Serious eye contact Trying to intimidate
Showing anger
Touching the face/fidgeting Nervousness
Lack of confidence
Submission
Nodding Agreeing
Willing to compromise
Shaking the head / turning away Frustrated
In disbelief
Disagreeing with a point
Arms folded Not interested
Cold

Negotiation Vocabulary

November 3rd, 2018 by

Word
part of speech
Meaning Example Sentence
alternatives
noun
other options We can’t offer you the raise you requested, but let’s discuss some other alternatives.
amplify
verb
expand; give more information Could you amplify on your proposal, please?
arbitration
noun
The act of resolving legal conflicts by use of a “neutral” third party. We’re better to settle this between ourselves because a formal arbitration will cost both of us money.
bargain
verb
Try to change a person’s mind by using various tactics We bargained on the last issue for over an hour before we agreed to take a break.
bottom-line
noun
the lowest one is willing to go I’ll accept a raise of one dollar per hour, but that’s my bottom-line.
collective
adj
When a group of people work together to achieve a goal.  They made a collective decision.”  — Also Adv. “collectively.” This is a collective concern, and it isn’t fair to discuss it without Marie present.
compensate
verb
Make up for a loss but also a package that is offered for employment. If you are willing to work ten extra hours a week we will compensate you by paying you overtime.  We will compensate you for the exploded car.  Our compensation package includes health-insurance.
comply
verb
Do what you have agreeded to. I’d be willing to comply if you can offer me my own private office. You have to comply with the terms of the contract.
compromise
verb
Changing one’s mind/terms slightly in order to find a resolution We are willing to compromise on this issue because it means so much to you.
concession
noun
A thing that is granted or accepted I think we can offer all of these concessions, but not all at once.
conflict resolution
noun
The general idea of resolving conflicts. Negotiation can be a method. It is impossible to engage in conflict resolution when one of the parties refuses to listen.
confront
verb
Present an issue to someone directly I confronted my boss about being undervalued, and we’re going to talk about things on Monday.
consensus
noun
Agreement by all It would be great if we could come to a consensus by 5:00 P.M.
cooperation
noun
Working together I have appreciated your cooperation throughout these negotiations.
counter proposal
noun
The offer/request which is presented second in response to the first proposal In their counter proposal they suggested that we keep their company name rather than creating a new one.
counterattack
verb/noun
present other side of an issue Before we could start our counterattack they suggested we sign a contract.
counterpart
noun
person on the other side of the negotiations I tried to close the discussions at noon, but my counterpart would not stop talking.
cordially
verb/noun
politely In the past I have had little respect for that client, but today she spoke cordially and listened to my point of view.
demands
adv
needs/expectations that one side believes it deserves They had some last minute demands that were entirely unrealistic.
deadlock
noun
point where neither party will give in When the discussions came to a deadlock we wrote up a letter of intent to continue the negotiations next week.
dispute
noun
argument/conflict I was hoping to avoid discussing last year’s dispute, but Monica is still holding a grudge.
dominate
verb
have the most control/stronger presence Max has such a loud voice, he tends to dominate the conversations.
entitled
adj
be deserving of My contract says that I am entitled to full benefits after six months of employment.
flexible
adj
open/willing to change We have always been flexible in terms of your working hours.
haggling
verb
arguing back and forth (often about prices) We’ve been haggling over this issue for too long now.
hostility
noun
long-term anger towards another I want you to know that we don’t have any hostility towards your company despite last year’s mixup.
high-ball
verb
make a request that is much higher than you expect to receive I’m planning to high-ball my expectations when I open the discussion.
impulse
noun
quick decision without thought or time I acted on impulse when I signed that six-month contract.
indecisive
adj
has difficulty choosing/making a decision They were so indecisive we finally asked them to take a break and come back next week.
leverage
noun
(bargaining power) something that gives one party a greater chance at succeeding over another We have a little bit of leverage because we are the only stationary company in town.
log-rolling
noun
trading one favour for another After a bit of log-rolling we came to an agreement that pleased both of us.
low-ball
verb
offer something much lower than you think the opponent will ask for I was expecting my boss to low-ball in the initial offer, but he proposed a fair salary increase.
mislead
verb
convince by altering or not telling the whole truth about something They misled us into thinking that everything could be resolved today.
mutual
adj
agreed by both or all The decision to call off the merger was mutual.
objective
noun
goal for the outcome My prime objective is to have my family members added to my benefits plan.
point of view
noun
person’s ideas/ thoughts From my point of view it makes more sense to wait another six months.
pressure
verb
work hard to convince another of an idea He pressured me to accept the terms by using intimidation tactics.
proposal
noun
argument to present While I listened to their proposal I noted each of their objectives.
receptive
adj
open to/interested in an idea His positive body language demonstrated that he was receptive to our suggestions.
resentment
noun
anger held onto from a previous conflict Mary’s resentment stems from our not choosing her to head the project.
resistance
noun
a display of opposition We didn’t expect so much resistance on the final issue.
resolve
verb
end conflict, come to an agreement Before you can resolve your differences you’ll both need to calm down.
tactics
noun
strategies used to get one’s goals met There are certain tactics that all skillful negotiators employ.
tension
noun
feeling of stress/anxiety caused by heavy conflict There was a lot of tension in the room when George threatened to quit.
trade-off
noun
terms that are offered in return for something else Lower payments over a longer period of time sounded like a fair trade-off until we asked about interest charges.
ultimatum
noun
a final term that has serious consequences if not met His ultimatum was that if I didn’t agree to give him the raise he asked for, he’d quit today without two week’s notice.
unrealistic
adj
very unlikely to happen It’s unrealistic to think that we will have all of our demands met.
victory
noun
a win We considered it a victory because they agreed to four of our five terms.
yield
verb
to give in to another’s requests The client will only yield to our conditions, if we agree to work over the holiday weekend.

Telephone Interviews

October 6th, 2018 by

Here are some links that give advice that will be helpful during a telephone interview.

Here is some advice from Balance Careers.  Their website is a treasure trove of good advice for job seekers.

Here is another link that has similar advice and a few other ideas from Career Intelligence.

One thing these links do not emphasize enough is the importance of questions. I one had only 15 minutes for an interview that was supposed to be an hour an said, “well, do you mind if I ask you a few questions?”  At the end of the 15 minutes, he asked me to come in for an on-site interview.

I have one key piece of advice for this.

Imagine that they have just hired you and you are walking in the door to do your job.

You can find out about the company culture, pay, and work-life balance on Glassdoor.  Research your role and ask about it from the perspective of someone who is doing that job.

If you are trying to get a job as a Javascript programmer you need to know if the backend is PHP,  Java, Node.js and how your frontend code interacts with the backend.  If you are applying for jobs in marketing you need to know how they do the market research, develop the advertising material, and their general philosophy towards marketing? If you are applying to a biotech company you need to know more about the specific product you will be working on.  What stage are they in trials, how are they doing the genetic manipulation, and other specific things you will need to know to do your job.

They will ask you, “do you have any questions for us” and that’s the time to shine by showing that you completely understand the role.