Simple Past “-ed” Morpheme

Just as you “add an ‘s’” to form the plural and third person singular, you “add an ‘-ed’” to form the simple past So,

  1. “hate” => “hated”
  2. “love” => “loved”
  3. “walk” => “walked”
  4. “send” => “sent”

As with adding an ‘s,’ if you listen we are not adding the same sound.  “Hate” becomes ‘hate’ – [ə] – ‘d,’ “love” becomes ‘love’ – ‘d,’ and “walk” becomes ‘walk’ – ‘t.’

It’s easy enough to hear the ‘t’ in #4, because it is reflected in the spelling.  But, the vowel sound changes too, so at first hearing it might seem like and irregular verb, but it’s not. The change is entirely predictable

As with the “add an s” morpheme, native speakers of English don’t even hear that they are different sounds, they hear that the word is being changed into the simple past tense.