Consonants

Consonants use some part of your vocal tract to stop, impair, or redirect the air flowing from your lungs. For instance, when you say ‘t,’ you stop the airflow by touching your tongue to the roof of your mouth just behind your teeth. Say “tub” and you can feel it. If you say “sit” you can feel that the ‘s’ sound is made by raising your tongue near the roof of your mouth and making a hissing sound. When you say “bat” you stop the air with your lips when you make the ‘b.’

The modification of the airflow is called articulation, where the modification takes place is called the place of articulation, and the way that it is modifying the airflow (stopping it, causing it to hiss, letting air through your nose) is called the manner of articulation. Just as vowels can be categorized by frontness, height, and rounding; consonants can be categorized by place and manner of articulation (Place and Manner of Articulation).  

IPA Consonant Chart with English Highlited

 Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Retro-flex Palatal Velar Uvular Pharengal  Glottal  
Voicing-v+v-v+v-v+v-v+v-v+v-v+v-v+v-v+v-v+v-v+v-v+v
StoppbtdʈɖcɟkgqGʔ
NasalmɱnɳɲŋN
TrillBrR
Tap or Flapɾɽ
Fricativeɸβfvθðszʃʒʂʐçʝxɣχʁħʕhɦ
Lateral Fricativeɮ̪ɬ̪ɬɮɭ̊˔ɭ˔ʎ̥˔ʎ˔ʟ̝̊ʟ̝
Affricatep͡ɸd͡ɮ[p̪͡fb̪͡vd͜ðt͡θt͡sd͡zt͡ʃd͡ʒʈ͡ʂɖ͡ʐc͡ʎ̥˔d͡ɮk͡xɡ͡ɣ
Lateralɬ̪d͡ɮcʎ̥˔ɟʎ̝kʟ̝̊ɡʟ̝
Affricate
Approximantβ̞ʋ̥ð̞ɹ̥ɹɻjɰ̊ɰʁ̞ʕ̞h
Lateral approximantlɭʎ̥ʎLʟ̠