On the table, Consonant Chart with English Highlighted, the vertical axis is the manner of articulation and the horizontal axis is the point of articulation.
The manner of articulation is the way that the sounds is made. Going down from the top the first row is stops (or stops).
These are sounds where the air is completely stopped and then released. If you go across the row you will see six symbols that you have long been familiar with and one that you learned about in the section, The /t/ Phoneme and It’s Allophones, above. The English phonemes are in green and are /p/, /b/, /t/, /d/ ; and the one you just learned is the glottal stop /ʔ/.
The column headings are the points of articulation, where the sound is made. The facts that there are different sounds in the same column shows that there are different types of sounds made at the same place in the vocal tract.
IPA Consonant Chart with English Highlighted
IPA Consonant Chart with English Highlited
|Tap or Flap||ⱱ||ɾ||ɽ|
Looking at the English phonemes in the top row from left to right, the first two are /p/ and /b/ and are called bilabial stops. Stop means that you stop the air and then release it, bilabial means that is made by putting your lips together. “Bi” means “two” and “labial” means “lips” and you can see that in the drawing. The +v and -v column headers stand for +voice and -voice which can “the vocal cords are engaged” and “the vocal cords are not engaged.” This is covered in detail in the section Voiced and Unvoiced Consonants.