Vowel Reduction and Deletion in Function Words

Full PronunciationReduced PronunciationExamplesIPA
Conjunctions
and[n̩]apples and oranges[æplz n̩ ɔrŋgəz]
or[ɚ]sugar or cream[ʃʊgɚ ɵ kɹim]
as[əz]might as well[mit əz wɛl]
Prepositions
to[tə]Talk to me.[tɑk tə mi]
for[fɚ]looking for trouble[lʊkɪŋ fɚ tɹʌbl̩]
of[əv]worst of all[wɝst əv ɑl]
[ə]film of the year[fɪlm ə ðə jɝ]
Auxiliary Verbs
have[ə] or [əv]could have gone[kʌd ə gɑn]
has[z]Where has she been?[wərz ʃi bɪn]
can[kən]I can ask.[ɑɪ kən æsk]
will[l̩]They will come.[ðəɫ kʌm]
Pronouns
he[i]Could he cheat?[kəd I t͡ʃit]
you[yə]I gave it to you.[ɑɪ geɪv ɪt tə yə]
his[ɪz]Use his notes.[uz ɪz nots]
her[ɚ]Use her notes.[uz ɚ nots]
him[ɪm]Give him time.[gɪv ɪm tim]
Them[əm]Give them time.[gɪv əm tim]
Articles
the[ði]the other day[ðə əðɚ deɪ]
[ðə]the red one[ðə ɹɛd wʌn]
a, an[ə] or [ən]What a shame.[wʌt ə ʃeɪm]
Spend an evening[spɛnd ən ivnɪŋ]